Tools of War: M1 Garand

 A GI poses with an early production M1 Garand in a rare pre-war color photograph taken at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Source: Popular Mechanics/Library of Congress.

A GI poses with an early production M1 Garand in a rare pre-war color photograph taken at Fort Knox, Kentucky. Source: Popular Mechanics/Library of Congress.

In the mid-1930s, the US Army found itself searching for a new main battle rifle for its soldiers. The aging Springfield M1903 bolt-action rifle was still the primary firearm of the infantry, but there was a growing trend towards the development of semi-automatic rifles. However, Springfield engineer John Garand had been working on a solution for years which would eventually take shape as the US Army’s primary small arm during World War II.

By Seth Marshall

            During the Second World War, nearly all of the countries involved used bolt-action rifles as their primary rifle. These weapons had been developed either late in the 19th Century or not long after the turn of the century. Britain had the Lee-Enfield, Germany had the Kar 98, the Soviet Union had the Moisin-Nagant, and Japan had the Arisaka. However, during the decades preceding the war, a number of countries had experimented with semi-automatic weapons. In the United States, an immigrant weapon engineer named John Garand had been refining the design of a new rifle which would eventually be adopted for use by the entire US military.

            John Cantius Garand was born on January 1, 1888 in the small town of Saint-Remy, Quebec in Canada. In 1898, Garand’s family moved to the United States, to Connecticut. Garand only attended school for another year until age 11. Following this, he began working in a local textile mill, gaining experience in took-making with the machinists there. A few years later, he began working at Brown and Sharpe, a tool-making company in Providence, Rhode Island. By the time of the First World War, Garand had moved to New York. When the Army began looking to design a new light machine gun, Garand took an interest. Garand began a partnership with another firearms designer, John Kewish. Kewish paid Garand $50 a week for his work; by June 1918, they had a prototype ready to be demonstrated. After showing their weapon to Hudson Maxim, the brother of machine-gun designer Hiram Maxim, Hudson recommended that the two men demonstrate their prototype t the Naval Consulting Board. Though the board passed them along to a succession of military agencies, the design was ultimately turned down. However, the Naval Consulting Board did send Garand and Kewish to the National Board of Standards, which began paying Garand and a different machinist $35 a week to improve his existing design, using NBS facilities.[1] Garand began his work in August 1918; by the time he had completed the requested modifications, it was 1919 and the First World War had ended.

 John Garrand at work in the Springfield Armory machine shop in 1923. Photo source: m1-garand-rifle.com

John Garrand at work in the Springfield Armory machine shop in 1923. Photo source: m1-garand-rifle.com

            Despite the initial setback, Garand’s talent for weapons design apparently did not go unappreciated. In November 1919, Garand was hired by Springfield Armory. By this time, Garand had become a naturalized citizen. Additionally, recognizing that semi-automatic rifles would represent an advantage for US infantrymen in future wars, the Army continued to press forward with the development of a new primary rifle. While Garand continued work on his design, another weapons designer was busy on his own semi-automatic creation. John D. Petersen had diverted from the Army’s M1906 .30-06 cartridge by developing a .276-caliber cartridge and compatible toggle-action rifle. Pedersen’s rationale for the change in ammunition was that an infantryman equipped with such a weapon would not have to carry as heavy a rifle and could instead carry more rounds.[2]

            Through the 1920s, changes in Army requirements kept both men making changes to their respective designs. Garand’s rifle, initially a primer-operated designed, was changed first in 1925 to chamber the new M1 .30 cal cartridge and was gas-operated, then to a .276-caliber design in late 1927 to compete with Pedersen’s rifle. Finally, in the early 1930s, formal trials were held to determine which rifle was more suitable. The Garand, by now designated as the T3E3 was determined by the Ordnance Department in January 1932 to be better suited for the next war than the Pedersen. However, not long after the competition, the Army decided that it would not convert to .276-caliber, instead preferring to remain with the already existing M1 .30-06 cartridge, which was readily available in large quantities. The newly redesigned rifle was the T1E2.[3] 80 production models of this new rifle were ordered for testing in March 1932, but it was some time before machinery had been constructed and the rifles built. As a result, the first production T1E2s were very expensive for the time- over $1800 per rifle (over $31,000 in 2018).[4] By the time the rifles had been produced and sent to Aberdeen Proving Grounds in August 1934, the design had been redesignated the M1. During the next year and a half, the rifles were shunted back and forth between the proving grounds and Springfield Armory as deficiencies were worked out of Garand’s design. Finally, on January 9, 1936, the M1 was officially approved for use in the Army by the Adjutant General and redesignated “U.S. Rifle, Caliber .30, M1.”[5] The approved design of the M1 had resulted in a rifle weighing nearly 11 pounds (4.9kg) and 43 inches in length. The new rifle had an effective range of 457 meters, and a well-trained infantryman could fire it up to 30 rounds per minute.[6]

 The final product of John Garand's labors. Photo source: Wikipedia.

The final product of John Garand's labors. Photo source: Wikipedia.

 John Garand shows the details of his rifle to Major General Charles Wesson, Chief of the Army Ordnance Corps. Photo Source: Wikipedia.

John Garand shows the details of his rifle to Major General Charles Wesson, Chief of the Army Ordnance Corps. Photo Source: Wikipedia.

            The first production M1s began coming of the lines at Springfield Armory in August 1937. Deliveries were somewhat slow at first- 945 were handed over to the Army in 1937, and 5,879 in 1938. Daily production rates steadily rose however; in 1937, only 10 were produced every day- by January 1940, 200 were being turned out by Springfield Armory daily. The first M1s were not perfect. It was quickly found that the gas cylinder assembly and muzzle plug were too loosely fixed to the barrel, which affected accuracy. Additionally, early M1s were prone to jamming after firing six rounds. Investigations found that there were manufacturing problems with guiding ribs in the receiver, leading to stoppages. Not helping matters was bad press- during the 1939 National Matches at Camp Perry, Ohio, 200 M1s had been supplied to participants. When many of the contestants complained of problems with the rifles, the Army denied that there were problems with the rifles. However, the issues were resolved in time. In late 1939, a new gas system was developed and implemented by the fall of 1940. 50,000 M1s had been produced prior to the change.

 A magazine photograph shows the difference between the early "Gas-trap" M1s and later production versions. Photo source: American Rifleman.

A magazine photograph shows the difference between the early "Gas-trap" M1s and later production versions. Photo source: American Rifleman.

            With the bugs gradually being worked out of the design, production of the M1 increased as the likeliness of war increased. Winchester Repeating Arms Company began producing M1s under license in 1940, delivering its first rifles in December that year. The M1’s introduction to combat came when the Japanese invaded the Philippines in December 1941. Several examples were being used by American soldiers defending the islands, including M1s which had the older-style gas-trap. Despite concerns that the older versions would be more seceptible to breaking down or stoppages, General Douglas MacArthur sent a cable in February 1942 to Army Chief of Staff General George C. Marshall that,

 “Garand rifles giving superior service to Springfield, no mechanical defects reported or stoppages due to dust and dirt from foxhole use. Good gun oil required as lubricant to prevent gumming, but have been used in foxhole fighting day and night for a week without cleaning and lubricating. All these weapons are excellent ones even without any modifications such as suggested.”[7]

With the declaration of war, the production of M1s was stepped up significantly. By the end of the war, over 4,000,000 M1s were produced by Springfield and Winchester.[8] Garand’s rifle had become revered by soldiers and marines alike by that point. The rifle was so good that General George S. Patton remarked in January 1945 that the M1 was “the greatest battle implement ever devised.”[9] In addition to the standard M1 rifle, sniper variants were produced in large quantities- by 1944, the M1C replaced the M1903A4 as the US Army’s standard sniper rifle.[10]

 An NCO instructs a private on marksmanship during the Second World War. Photo source: Popular Mechanics/Getty Images.

An NCO instructs a private on marksmanship during the Second World War. Photo source: Popular Mechanics/Getty Images.

 A World War II poster featuring the M-1. Photo source: m1-garand-rifle.com

A World War II poster featuring the M-1. Photo source: m1-garand-rifle.com

 John Garand poses with an M1. Photo: Popular Mechanics.

John Garand poses with an M1. Photo: Popular Mechanics.

 A soldier with his M1 in Europe. US soldiers and marines enjoyed a firepower advantage over their adversaries in both Europe and the Pacific; all of the Axis powers used primarily bolt-action rifles such as the Kar 98K and the Arisaka. Photo source: Popular Mechanics.

A soldier with his M1 in Europe. US soldiers and marines enjoyed a firepower advantage over their adversaries in both Europe and the Pacific; all of the Axis powers used primarily bolt-action rifles such as the Kar 98K and the Arisaka. Photo source: Popular Mechanics.

            During the years immediately following the end of World War II, production of the M1 tapered off, and many wartime rifles were placed in storage. However, when North Korea invaded South Korea in June 1950, production was ramped back up. International Harvester Corporation and Harrington & Richardson Arms both took up M1 production during the 1950s- between 1950-1957, another 1,500,000 M1 rifles were produced.[11] Many M1s began equipping other nations’ armies, including those of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which the M1 had helped defeat just years earlier. However, by the mid-1950s, the M1’s days were waning.

            The development of the M14 had begun years before it was formally adopted by the Army in 1957. Equipped with a 20-round magazine and chambered in 7.62 x 51mm NATO, the M14 had drawn upon the M1 design. Deliveries of these rifles began in 1959, and the transition from M1 to M14 within the Army was completed in 1963. Use of the M1 in the Army Reserve and National Guard, and US Navy continued into the 1970s. [12]

 US soldiers supervise the marksmanship training of South Korean soldiers using M-1s in 1952. Photo: Wikipedia.

US soldiers supervise the marksmanship training of South Korean soldiers using M-1s in 1952. Photo: Wikipedia.

            In spite of the success of his rifle, John Garand never received profits from his design, having sold the patents to Springfield Armory. During his 34 years working in conjunction with the Ordnance Corps, Garand never made more than $12,000 annually. At one time, a bill to award him with $100,000 for his services was introduced into Congress, but it failed to pass.  In 1941, he was awarded the Medal for Meritorious Service, and in 1944 he was awarded the Medal for Merit. [13] He continued working for Springfield Armory until his retirement in 1953. John Garand died in 1974 at the age of 86 in Springfield, Massachusetts.[14]

            The M1 Garand was one of the seminal rifles of the Second World War, and remains a classic weapons design. Reliable, tough, and efficient, the M1 was a favorite of soldiers and marines alike. It influenced the design of subsequent rifles, including the M14. Today, thousands of M1s remain in private hands as popular collectors firearms.

 John Garand after his retirement. He died in 1974 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Photo: m1-garand-rifle.com

John Garand after his retirement. He died in 1974 in Springfield, Massachusetts. Photo: m1-garand-rifle.com

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources

1.      “M1 Garand History - John C Garand, The Inventor.” The M1 Garand Rifle, m1-garand-rifle.com/history/john-garand.php. Accessed 5 May 2018.

2.      Canfield, Bruce N. “The Unknown M1 Garand.” American Rifleman, Jan. 1994. https://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/2015/9/15/the-unknown-m1-garand . Accessed 5 May 2018

3.      “M1 Garand Rifle.” D-Day Overlord, 2018, www.dday-overlord.com/en/material/weaponry/m1-garand-rifle. Accessed 5 May 2018

4.      Seijas, Bob. “History of the M1 Garand Rifle.” Garand Collectors Association, 2018, thegca.org/history-of-the-m1-garand-rifle/. Accessed 5 May 2018

5.      Moss, Matthew. “The Legendary Rifle That Fought World War II.” Popular Mechanics, Hearst Communications, 30 Dec. 2016, www.popularmechanics.com/military/weapons/a24537/m1-garand-world-war-two. Accessed 5 May 2018.

6.      “M1 Garand History – The M1 Garand After 1957.” The M1 Garand Rifle, https://m1-garand-rifle.com/history/since-1957.php. Accessed 5 May 2018.

7.      “M1 Garand History - John C Garand, The Inventor.” The M1 Garand Rifle, https://m1-garand-rifle.com/history/world-war-ii-to-korea.php . Accessed 5 May 2018.

 

 

[1] https://m1-garand-rifle.com/history/john-garand.php

[2] https://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/2015/9/15/the-unknown-m1-garand

[3] https://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/2015/9/15/the-unknown-m1-garand

[4] https://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/2015/9/15/the-unknown-m1-garand

[5] https://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/2015/9/15/the-unknown-m1-garand

[6] http://www.dday-overlord.com/en/material/weaponry/m1-garand-rifle

[7] https://www.americanrifleman.org/articles/2015/9/15/the-unknown-m1-garand

[8] http://thegca.org/history-of-the-m1-garand-rifle/

[9] http://www.popularmechanics.com/military/weapons/a24537/m1-garand-world-war-two

[10] https://m1-garand-rifle.com/history/john-garand.php

[11] https://m1-garand-rifle.com/history/john-garand.php

[12] https://m1-garand-rifle.com/history/since-1957.php

[13] https://m1-garand-rifle.com/history/world-war-ii-to-korea.php

[14] https://m1-garand-rifle.com/history/world-war-ii-to-korea.php

Tools of War: Vickers F.B.5 'Gunbus'

 A replica Vickers Gunbus. Photo source: Wikipedia.

A replica Vickers Gunbus. Photo source: Wikipedia.

During the first months of World War I, aviation, was still a new technology which was exhibited in the seemingly ungainly aircraft of the time. One of these early designs, the Vickers ‘Gunbus’ proved it was more than just an awkward ‘kite’, and it became one of the first successful designs of the war.

By Seth Marshall

                The first year of the World War I was a tremendous learning experience for all of the militaries involved in terms of aviation. Before the war began, aircraft were seen primarily as platforms for reconnaissance- early military aircraft were armed with cameras, not with machine guns and bombs. Nonetheless, within a short time, pilots and observers began carrying with them pistols and rifles with the intention of shooting down other observation aircraft. However, even before the war began, the potential for use of aircraft in combat was being explored. Bombs were first dropped from aircraft during the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913. Around the same time, aircraft designers began considering the possibility of creating aircraft specifically intended to destroy other aircraft.

                The first aircraft to be specifically designed for aerial combat was the Vickers F.B.5 ‘Gunbus’. In 1912, the British Admiralty issued an order for a scout aircraft armed with a machine gun. The Vickers firm, still new to aircraft design at the time, came up with a new prototype designated the E.F.B.1- “Experimental Flying Biplane 1”. Designed by Archibald Lowe, the first prototype, nicknamed ‘The Destroyer’, was flimsy and ungainly in appearance, with staggered unequal-span wings. It was equipped with a V-8 Wolseley engine which produced a measly 80-horsepower, and armed with a single 7.7mm machine gun. ‘The Destroyer’ was unveiled during the 1913 Olympia air show in London, but crashed on its initial flight because the machine gun, mounted in the nose, disrupted the center of gravity.[1][2]

 A plan view of the Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus. Photo source: Wikipedia.

A plan view of the Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus. Photo source: Wikipedia.

                Vickers was not dissuaded by the failure of their first fighter design. A series of experimental pusher-type aircraft followed the E.F.B.1- these aircraft featured the pilot and observer/gunner in seats located in front of the engine; the engine itself was mounted facing the rear of the aircraft. The second plane, the E.F.B.2, also crashed. The third design, the E.F.B.3, ditched the wing-warping controls used in the previous two designs in favor of ailerons, flaps which control the roll-rate of flight. This version was more successful, and the Admiralty ordered six aircraft in late 1913.[3] Finally, in the first half of 1914, the F.B.5 was designed. The F.B.5 was given a more powerful engine, a 100-horsepower Gnome rotary engine. Additionally, the tail structure was redesigned to with several beams forming a V-shape, with the rudder mounted at the apex of the V-shape. [4]

 The production version of the Vickers Gunbus, showing its flexible machine gun mount in the nose. Photo: Wikipedia. 

The production version of the Vickers Gunbus, showing its flexible machine gun mount in the nose. Photo: Wikipedia. 

                The new aircraft first flew on July 17, 1914, just weeks before the war broke out.[5] Weighing just over 2,000lbs, the F.B.5 was capable of only reaching a top speed of 70 mph, slow even by the standards of the day. The F.B.5 had a maximum ceiling of 9,000 feet. In November, the first production F.B.5 aircraft began reaching Royal Flying Corps (RFC) units- the first squadron to receive the new aircraft was No. 6 Squadron. As was common for the time, the F.B.5 equipped squadrons piecemeal initially- most RFC squadrons flew a motley of aircraft during the first months of the war. It would not be until 1915 that F.B.5’s would be committed to action over the Continent. The first squadron to solely operate the F.B.5 was No. 11 Squadron, formed in February 1915 with the specific purpose of destroying other aircraft. In July, the squadron moved to an aerodrome near a racetrack at St. Omer, France. The nickname “Gunbus” was acquired through the escort duties that the type performed for unarmed reconnaissance planes.[6] No. 11 Squadron thus had the distinction of becoming the first fighter squadron in history.

  The Gunbus , painting by Frank Wooten. 

The Gunbus, painting by Frank Wooten. 

                The operational life of the F.B.5 Gunbus was relatively short. The type’s slow speed, sluggish rate of climb, and mediocre ceiling meant that it was quickly eclipsed by newer aircraft types on both sides. Additionally, numerous problems were encountered with the Gunbus’ engine, which was considered unreliable. Maurice LeBlanc-Smith later recalled:

“… the Vickers seemed a more robust aircraft, but my chief recollection, apart from the smell of castor oil that blew into our faces and probably helped to keep us fit, was the unreliability of the 100hp Gnome engine. One great fault was the breakdown of the expanding piston ring, shaped like an L… It frequently would not stand up to the heat and would buckle or break, with consequent loss of power…”[7]

Beginning in late 1915, the introduction of the German Fokker Eindekker effectively signaled the end of the operational life of the Gunbus. The Eindekker was faster and far more maneuverable- the Gunbus couldn’t even dive away for safety. As a result, by early 1916, the F.B.5 had been withdrawn from frontline service.[8] Before it was phased out, the F.B.5 did have a moment of glory. On November 7, 1915, an F.B.5 from No. 11 Squadron, crewed by pilot Second Lieutenant Gilbert Stuart Martin and gunner First Class Air Mechanic T.H. Donald, shot down a German Aviatik and were then themselves brought down by ground fire. However, both crew were able to repair the Gunbus, take off, and return to base. Both were later awarded the Victoria Cross, Britain’s highest military honor.[9] Nonetheless, the Gunbus’ operational days were numbered. By mid-1916, the F.B.5 had been relegated to the role of trainer. An improved version of the F.B.5, the F.B.9, was built in some numbers, but was generally unsuccessful.

 A Gunbus is attacked by a Fokker Eindecker- by late 1915, increasing numbers of Eindeckers had rendered the Gunbus design hopelessly obsolete. Photo source: HiPM Models.

A Gunbus is attacked by a Fokker Eindecker- by late 1915, increasing numbers of Eindeckers had rendered the Gunbus design hopelessly obsolete. Photo source: HiPM Models.

                Ultimatley, 125 F.B.5s were built by Vickers and delivered to the RFC- 109 of these served in the BEF. Another 75 aircraft were built under license in France by Societe Anonym Darracq between 1915-1916. Finally, 12 examples were built by the Danish company Tojhusvasrksted during 1917-1918.[10] Today, no original examples of the F.B.5 survive. Several replicas exist, including one built in the 1960s that flew for a number of years in the UK. While the Gunbus had a relatively short operational life, it was an important step in military aviation design as the first purpose-built fighter aircraft. Additionally, the design of the F.B.5 informed later successful pusher-type aircraft designs, including the Royal Aircraft Factory F.E.2b two-seater and Airco D.H.2 single-seater fighters, both of which were important to eliminating the advantage that the Luftstreitskrafte had gained with the Fokker Eindekker. Though not a instrumental aircraft, the F.B.5 was an important stepping stone of First World War aviation.

 

 The sole replica Vickers Gunbus, which is currently on display in the Hendon RAF Museum. Photo source: Flikr.

The sole replica Vickers Gunbus, which is currently on display in the Hendon RAF Museum. Photo source: Flikr.

 

Sources

1.       Pfeiffer, Greg. “Vickers Gunbus.” Old British Guns, 16 May 2010, oldbritishguns.com/the-vickers-gunbus. https://oldbritishguns.com/the-vickers-gunbus  16 APR 2018

2.       “Vickers F.B.5 'Gunbus', Royal Air Force Museum – the First 'Fighting Squadron'.” Shortfinals's Blog, 29 Mar. 2015, shortfinals.wordpress.com/2013/9/17/vickers-f-b-5-gunbus-royal-air-force-museum-the-first-fighting-squadron. https://shortfinals.wordpress.com/2013/9/17/vickers-f-b-5-gunbus-royal-air-force-museum-the-first-fighting-squadron/ 16 APR 2018

3.       “Vickers FB5.” Tangmere Musseum, Tangmere Military Aviation Museum, May 2014, www.tangmere-museum.org.uk/aircraft-month/vickers-fb5. 16 APR 2018

4.       “Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus.” Vickers F.B.5 Gunbus - Fighter, www.aviastar.org/air/england/vickers_fb-5.php. 16 APR 2018

 

 

[1] https://oldbritishguns.com/the-vickers-gunbus 16 April 2018

[2] https://shortfinals.wordpress.com/2013/9/17/vickers-f-b-5-gunbus-royal-air-force-museum-the-first-fighting-squadron 16 April 16, 2018

[3] https://oldbritishguns.com/the-vickers-gunbus 16 April 2018

[4] https://shortfinals.wordpress.com/2013/9/17/vickers-f-b-5-gunbus-royal-air-force-museum-the-first-fighting-squadron

[5] http://www.tangmere-museum.org.uk/aircraft-month/vickers-fb5

[6] https://shortfinals.wordpress.com/2013/9/17/vickers-f-b-5-gunbus-royal-air-force-museum-the-first-fighting-squadron

[7] Dog-Fight: Aerial Tactics of the Aces of World War I, p. 21-22

[8] http://www.tangmere-museum.org.uk/aircraft-month/vickers-fb5

[9] http://www.tangmere-museum.org.uk/aircraft-month/vickers-fb5

[10] http://www.aviastar.org/air/england/vickers_fb-5.php

Hilfskreuzer!

 Kormoran, seen during her cruise from another German ship, 1940-1941. Source: Wikipedia.

Kormoran, seen during her cruise from another German ship, 1940-1941. Source: Wikipedia.

During the Second World War, the German Kriegsmarine mounted a large-scale campaign aimed at the destruction of Allied commerce. Today, this campaign is primarily remembered for its extensive use of U-Boats and even a few surface warships. However, a small number of cargo ships converted to auxiliary cruisers managed to cause an impact that far outweighed their cost.

                                                                By Seth Marshall

                The Second World War in the Atlantic is frequently remembered for the use of hundreds of German submarines, resulting in numerous Allied counter-measures, including convoys, escort ships, sonar, anti-submarine patrol aircraft, and more. Additionally, German surface combatants, such as the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, are similarly recalled for their occasional forays into the Atlantic to harass shipping. However, the Kriegsmarine utilized a third form of anti-commerce warship that has received far less attention: auxiliary cruisers.

                Auxiliary cruisers were former cargo ships that had been converted to serve as warships. The Kriegsmarine’s intention with these ships was multi-faceted: it was hoped that in addition to sinking or capturing merchant ships, it was hoped that they would instill some measure of chaos in the scheduling of merchant shipping as well as spread out British naval forces even more than they already were.[1] Aided through resupply rendezvous with supply ships and submarines around the world, the auxiliary cruisers frequently mounted cruisers that lasted for over a year. The cruisers came from several different types of ships. The first group of auxiliary cruisers, known to the Kriegsmarine as Hilfkreuzers, were made up of two ship types. The Atlantis, Pinguin, and Thor had previously been modern diesel freighters, capable of very long ranges. The Pinguin, previously known as the Kandelfels, was a 7,766-ton freighter launched in 1936 and operated by the Deutsche Dampfshiffahrts Gesellschaft (Hansa) line.[2] The second group, the Orion and Widder, had served with the Hamburg-Amerika Line as the Kurmark and Neumark. Both of these ships were outfitted with boiler-turbine engines that were not considered the most reliable.[3]

                After purchase by the Kriegsmarine, the ships were equipped with six 150mm guns taken from outdated dreadnought-type battleships, two to six torpedo tubes mounted at deck level, four to six 37mm dual-purpose anti-aircraft guns, one 75mm gun, and dozens of mines to disrupt shipping lanes. These weapons were hidden behind fake hull plates and cargo, and were camouflaged in order to conceal their identity. All of the cruisers also carried at least one floatplane, usually either a Heinkel He-114 or Arado Ar-196. To maximize the ships’ value, the cruisers also carried spare torpedoes and mines to resupply U-Boats at sea. Despite these alterations, the only change to the exterior that might have indicated that the ships were not commercial was the raked bow installed of some of them to increase speed. The crews for these ships were unusual for the Kriegsmarine- they had volunteered for service on the auxiliary cruisers, and their officers were drawn from the reserve.[4][5]

                The first Hilfskreuzer to sortie was the Atlantis. After adopting a paint scheme that disguised her as a ship from the Fred Olsen line, the Atlantis sailed on March 23rd, 1940 from Suderpiep Bay. The Atlantis’ first victim was the steamer Scientist, a 6,199-ton ship carrying a mixed cargo that included maize, metals and chemical compounds, and tanning bark, on May 3rd, 1940.[6] Over the next 622 days, the Atlantis sank 22 ships totaling 145,697 tons. Commanded by Bernhard Rogge, the Atlantis had a remarkable career. Her cruise lasted longer than any other Hilfskreuzer and perhaps made the most significant impact on the war. Among her victims was the SS Automedon, a 7,528-ton merchant ship of the Blue Funnel Line. On the morning of November 11, 1940, the Atlantis closed on the Automedan and opened fire on the ship after it had sent out a warning radio signal and refused to stop as ordered. After firing several salvoes into the Automedon, the merchant ship came to a halt and was boarded by a group of sailors from the German vessel. By chance, the Germans broke into a room filled with luggage and mail bags- the bags were filled with correspondence and classified documents intended for British military and intelligence personnel, including a report that detailed the strength of Britain’s Asia Empire- and the weaknesses of its military. Ultimately, this captured intelligence was passed to the Abwehr (the German intelligence agency) and along to the Japanese. The information possibly influenced Japan’s decision to attack British colonial possessions in the Pacific, including Singapore.[7] The Atlantis’ long cruise came to an end on November 22, 1941, when it encountered the heavy cruiser HMS Devonshire while rendezvousing with a U-boat. Hit by eight rounds from the cruiser, Rogge ordered his ship abandoned. After Atlantis sank, the U-boat it had been resupplying surfaced and took on survivors. The survivors of the Atlantis sinking endured a perilous journey to Brazil while being towed by the U-boat they had been supplying, before boarding the supply ship Python. On December 1st, while the Python was refueling more U-boats, the HMS Dorsetshire found and sank the Python. The survivors of both ships were forced to take refuge first among lifeboats, then among the submarines. After a lengthy voyage, the remainder of the Atlantis crew landed in St. Nazaire, France.

 The Atlantis, one of the two most successful German raiders. After over a year and a half at sea, the Atlantis was finally sunk on November 22, 1941. Photo source: Wikipedia.

The Atlantis, one of the two most successful German raiders. After over a year and a half at sea, the Atlantis was finally sunk on November 22, 1941. Photo source: Wikipedia.

 Captain Berhard Rogge, the commander of the Atlantis. Rogge began his service in the navy during the First World War. After surviving the sinking of the Atlantis, Rogge spent the rest of the war as a POW. Rogge was commended for his excellent treatment of prisoners he captured while commanding the Atlantis. After the war, Rogge served in the West German Navy, reaching the rank of Rear Admiral. He died in 1982. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk.

Captain Berhard Rogge, the commander of the Atlantis. Rogge began his service in the navy during the First World War. After surviving the sinking of the Atlantis, Rogge spent the rest of the war as a POW. Rogge was commended for his excellent treatment of prisoners he captured while commanding the Atlantis. After the war, Rogge served in the West German Navy, reaching the rank of Rear Admiral. He died in 1982. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk.

                Other German Hilfskreuzer met with success as well. “Schiff 33”, known as the Pinguin, put to sea in June 1940 and over the course of the next 11 months sank or captured 28 ships totaling 136,000 tons. Commanded by Ernst Felix Kruder, the Pinguin caused tremendous damage to the Norwegian whaling fleet in early 1941, with the capture of two whaling factory ships and their support vessels.[8] Pinguin and one of her prizes, the Passat, were also responsible for laying 230 mines off the coast of Australia, which over the course of the next several months sank five ships. Penguin’s luck came to an end in the Indian Ocean on May 8, 1941, when she was intercepted and sunk by the heavy cruiser HMS Cornwall. 342 of Pinguin’s crew, including Kruder, were killed, along with over 200 prisoners on board. Just 60 crew and 22 prisoners were recovered.[9] Another ship which took to the sea around the same time as the Pinguin was the Orion, commanded by Kurt Weyer. The Orion was at sea for over a year, returning in August 1941 after having sunk or captured 8 ships by itself, totaling 48, 400 tons, and cooperated in operations with Kormoran for another two ships.[10] Among the Hilfskreuzer sailing in 1940 was the Widder, which had the shortest cruise out of any of the auxiliary cruisers, lasting a “scant” six months. Nonetheless, Widder, commanded by Helmut von Ruckteschell, sank or captured 10 ships totaling 58,000 tons.[11] The last of the first five auxiliary cruisers was the Thor, a 3800-ton ship commanded by Otto Kahler. Setting sail on June 6, 1940, the Thor had a colorful first cruise during which she sank or captured 12 ships totaling over 96,000 tons and had the distinction of successfully battling three Allied Armed Merchant Cruisers on separate occasions- this will be discussed further later. The Thor returned to Germany in April 1941 after nine months at sea.[12]

 The Pinguin in home waters. After a successful career, particularly against the Norwegian whaling fleet, Pinguin was sunk in the Indian Ocean by the cruiser HMS Cornwall on May 8, 1941. Only 60 of Pinguin's crew of 400 survived to be captured. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk

The Pinguin in home waters. After a successful career, particularly against the Norwegian whaling fleet, Pinguin was sunk in the Indian Ocean by the cruiser HMS Cornwall on May 8, 1941. Only 60 of Pinguin's crew of 400 survived to be captured. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk

 The Norwegian factory ship Pellagos, one of the Norwegian whaling vessels captured by the Pinguin in January 1941. Photo source: Wikipedia.

The Norwegian factory ship Pellagos, one of the Norwegian whaling vessels captured by the Pinguin in January 1941. Photo source: Wikipedia.

 The Orion proceeding under disguise. A number of panels are visible along the side of the ship which would be dropped to reveal guns. Orion survived her cruise and made it nearly to the end of the war, only to be sunk by bombs in waters off Denmark on May 4, 1945. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk. 

The Orion proceeding under disguise. A number of panels are visible along the side of the ship which would be dropped to reveal guns. Orion survived her cruise and made it nearly to the end of the war, only to be sunk by bombs in waters off Denmark on May 4, 1945. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk. 

                The results of the first five raiders to put to sea were not unsubstantial. They had sunk or captured 84 ships totaling over 450,000 tons.[13] In return, the Germans had lost two of the cruisers- the Atlantis and Pinguin, along with 347 officers and crewmen killed.[14] The success of the raiders was owed to a number of factors. First was the Kriegsmarine’s Ettapendienst, a secret supply division which kept caches of ammunition, food and supplies in neutral ports all over the world. The raiders had the ability to either sail to those ports or arrange a meeting at sea with a supply ship via signal. Second, the raiders primary hunting grounds were generally isolated stretches of ocean away from heavily trafficked and protected shipping lanes, such as the South Atlantic and Indian Ocean. Generally speaking, raiders avoided fights and mostly targeted single vessels, improving their odds for success. Additionally, because the raiders chose targets in remote areas, the Allied navies simply did not have the means to provide escorts to protect every ship in every corner of the ocean. Huge numbers of escort ships were tasked with protecting convoys and shipping lanes in the North Atlantic and North Sea, where U-boats prowled in large numbers. On top of this, the British Admiralty was forced to wait for the distress signals of merchant ships to determine where the German ships were, and could only guess at where the raiders next attack would occur.[15] The ongoing success of the first several raiders meant that Hitler and the Kriegsmarine leadership readily agreed to send several more raiders to sea.

The first of the second wave of auxiliary cruisers was the Komet, a small 3200-ton ship commanded by Robert Essyen. Sailing in early July 1940, Komet was oddly an example of Nazi-Soviet cooperation- the Komet entered the Pacific after following the path of a Soviet icebreaker along the northern coast of the Soviet Union. The Komet did not meet substantial success, sinking or capturing six ships totaling 31,000 tons.  She returned to occupied Europe in the November 1941. The next raider to set out was the Kormoran. Originally built as the 8700-ton passenger freighter Steiermark, the Kormoran was the largest of the auxiliary cruisers, and was twice the size of both the Thor and the Komet. Kormoran was captained by Theodore Detmers, who sortied on December 4, 1940. In the next eleven months, the Kormoran sank or captured 12 ships, mostly in the Indian Ocean. Kormoran was sunk on November 19, 1941 in a mutually-destructive engagement with the light cruiser HMAS Sydney- this will be discussed in further detail later.

 The Komet, displaying a Japanese disguise. Komet was much smaller than most of her fellow raiders, displacing just 3300 tons. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk.

The Komet, displaying a Japanese disguise. Komet was much smaller than most of her fellow raiders, displacing just 3300 tons. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk.

The last two raiders to see action did not sail until the spring of 1942. By this time, it was becoming increasingly difficult for German ships to find success on the seas. Increasing numbers of escort ships meant that cruisers were more readily available to patrol remote sealanes. As a result, several raiders fell victim to Allied patrols, despite the best efforts of the Germans’ disguise crews. Merchant ships continued to send radio signals when attacked, giving away the raiders’ position. Perhaps most difficult of all was breaking out of European ports; the both the English Channel and the North Sea were heavily guarded by British air and sea patrols. The potency of these patrols was driven home when the Komet attempted a second cruise in October 1942. Two task forces composed of seven Royal Navy destroyers, three patrol boats, and a Polish warship ambushed the Komet along with her escort of four torpedo boats. After a brief exchange of gunfire during which Komet’s gunners appeared to hit one of her escorts in panic, Komet was hit and set afire. A short time later one of her forward magazines exploded and she quickly sank, taking all 251 crew with her.[16]

Despite the increasing odds, the Kriegsmarine persisted in sending more raiders to sea. After Kormoran, the next raider to leave was the Michel. Michel had been 4700-ton Polish ship named Bielsko which was seized in 1939 when the Germans invaded. With Hellmuth von Ruckteschell as captain, Michel sailed on March 9, 1942. Almost a year to the day later, after sinking 14 ships totaling 99,386 tons, Michel tied up in port at Kobe, Japan.[17] After two months in Kobe, Michel set sail on a second cruise in May 1943 with Guther Gumprich in command. Focusing on the Pacific as her hunting ground, Michel did not meet as much success the second time round. In seven months, Michel only sank three ships for 27,600 tons. Early on the morning of October 17th, Michel was spotted by the submarine USS Tarpon. Launching four torpedoes, Michel was damaged and began to list. Tarpon submerged, passed beneath the raider, then launched a second attack from the opposite direction. Michel’s stern was blown off, then the Michel sank after a large explosion. Out of the 373 crew on board, 263 were killed, including Captain Gumprich.[18]

As evidenced by the fates of Atlantis, Pinguin, Komet, it was in the best interest of the raiders to avoid fights when possible. Raiders were tasked with disrupting commerce, sinking merchant ships, and capturing valuable cargo when possible- they were not built to take on heavily armed allied cruisers. Despite this, raiders encountered resistance in a number of forms. As previously mentioned, the Atlantis and Pinguin fell victim to cruisers, while the Komet was sunk by destroyers.  However, not every meeting between a raider and Allied warship ended badly for the raider. On July 28, 1940 the tiny raider Thor, displacing just 3100 tons, encountered the British armed merchant cruiser Alcantara. Armed Merchant Cruisers (AMCs) were merchant ships which had been equipped with numerous guns and served as a deterrent to Hilfskreuzer; in Alcantara’s case, 8 6-inch guns and 3 4-inch guns. When the Thor attempted to escape, Alcantara gave chase. Recognizing that the Thor couldn’t outrun her pursuer, Kapitan Kahler turned his ship toward the Alcantara, dropped Thor’s disguise and opened fire. Thor hit the Alcantara numerous times before the British ship landed a hit, a round which passed through Thor completely without exploding. With the Alcantara on fire and slowing, Thor turned and disengaged. Kahler had taken an additional two hits which killed three. Alcantara’s crew eventually restored power and managed to limp to Rio de Janiero.[19] Four months later, on December 5th, Thor encountered a second AMC, this time the Carnarvon Castle. Carnarvon Castle was a former liner which had been armed with eight 6-inch guns and two 3-inch guns.[20] Again, Kahler tried to flee from the AMC, but the British ship ordered Thor to halt. Carnarvon Castle opened fire when the raider refused to stop, then Thor returned fire. Kahler launched two torpedoes, which missed, and fired his guns as quickly as he could, obtaining numerous hits on the AMC. With many casualties and several fires, Carnarvon Castle broke off and withdrew at a slowed rate. Thor had not been hit once.[21] Carnarvon Castle later reached Montevideo, albeit with a ten-degree list after sustaining twenty-seven hits and suffering four killed and thirty-two wounded.[22] Remarkably, on April 5th, 1941, Thor engaged a third AMC- the 13,400-ton Voltaire. This time Kahler’s crew hit the AMC critically with the first salvoes, setting her superstructure on fire. Soon after, the Voltaire was ablaze and slowly circling, having lost control. After fifty-five minutes of firing, Voltaire’s crew hoisted a white flag and abandoned ship. Thor picked up 197 survivors out of the crew of 269.[23]

 Raider Thor disguised as the Santa Cruz. Despite her diminutive size at just 3800 tons, Thor proved to be one of the two most successful raiders. After two successful cruises during which she took on three Armed Merchant Cruisers, Thor docked in Yokohama, Japan. Unfortunately, she was destroyed in a fire that broke out in the docks.

Raider Thor disguised as the Santa Cruz. Despite her diminutive size at just 3800 tons, Thor proved to be one of the two most successful raiders. After two successful cruises during which she took on three Armed Merchant Cruisers, Thor docked in Yokohama, Japan. Unfortunately, she was destroyed in a fire that broke out in the docks.

 A prewar postcard of the Carnarvon Castle Heavily damaged by Thor, Carnarvon Castle was heavily damaged and had to make for Montevideo for repairs. Photo source: Wikipedia.

A prewar postcard of the Carnarvon Castle Heavily damaged by Thor, Carnarvon Castle was heavily damaged and had to make for Montevideo for repairs. Photo source: Wikipedia.

 The AMC Voltaire, which was sunk during a battle with Thor in April 1941. 100 of Voltaire's crew were killed, but the surviving 196 were picked up by the German raider. Photo source:Wikipedia.

The AMC Voltaire, which was sunk during a battle with Thor in April 1941. 100 of Voltaire's crew were killed, but the surviving 196 were picked up by the German raider. Photo source:Wikipedia.

Aside from the Thor, one other raider experienced a degree of success against an Allied warship. On November 19, 1941 the Kormoran, which had been raiding in the Indian Ocean, detected the HMAS Sydney, a 6,830-ton Perth-class cruiser. Sydney was an English-built cruiser commissioned in 1935. Sydney was armed with 8 x 6-inch guns in four turrets, along with a secondary armament including 4 x 4-inch guns, 12 x .50 caliber machine guns, 4 x 3-pounder AA guns, and 8 x 21-inch torpedo tubes. Sydney was also equipped with a floatplane. The Kormoran’s captain, Theodore Detmers, wrote later:

“Evasion was out of the question. There were three hours until dusk at 1900 hours, but the cruiser coming up could move at 32.5 knots compared with our best speed of 18 knots, which we were unable to do on account of the barnacles and so on clinging to our bottom and sides. About the best we could manage was 16.5 knots… No, the only thing to do was keep my course and wait and see what happened; remaining alert all the time to take advantage of any mistakes he might make and see to it at least that I had a favorable opening position.”[24]

 The raider Kormoran during an at-sea rendevous with a U-boat. Photo source: Wikipedia.

The raider Kormoran during an at-sea rendevous with a U-boat. Photo source: Wikipedia.

 Captain Theodore Detmers. A veteran of the German Navy during the Inter-war period, Detmers was held as a prisoner in Australia following the battle with Sydney.  He was released in 1947, but was unable to serve in the postwar navy owing to a stroke he suffered in captivity. He died in 1976 at the age of 74. Photo source: Wikipedia.

Captain Theodore Detmers. A veteran of the German Navy during the Inter-war period, Detmers was held as a prisoner in Australia following the battle with Sydney.  He was released in 1947, but was unable to serve in the postwar navy owing to a stroke he suffered in captivity. He died in 1976 at the age of 74. Photo source: Wikipedia.

 The light cruiser HMAS Sydney. Despite being well-armed in comparison with the Kormoran, the Sydney unwittingly closed within lethal range of the Kormoran's guns and was mortally damaged. Photo source: Wikipedia. 

The light cruiser HMAS Sydney. Despite being well-armed in comparison with the Kormoran, the Sydney unwittingly closed within lethal range of the Kormoran's guns and was mortally damaged. Photo source: Wikipedia. 

Detmers kept his disguise up while the cruiser began to close and request the Kormoran give its identity. Despite several requests, Detmers held his course and did not respond, eventually sending out a “strange ship” signal via radio. Finally, presumably exasperated, the captain of the Sydney signaled the Komoran, “show your secret signal.” By this point, Sydney had closed to approximately 1000 yards from the Kormoran. Detmers later recorded,

“The enemy cruiser was now coming within the range that I considered suitable for my guns, and she was already so close that through our glasses we could see every detail clearly. In particular we could see that her four double turrets with their 6-in guns and also the port torpedo tube battery were all directed at us. As far as I could make out her eight 4-inch anti-aircraft guns were not manned… There were so many white caps on the bridge that I would almost assume officers from other battle posts had assembled there. To all appearances, it looked as though our camouflage was effective and they believed our information.”[25]

At that point, with the Sydney so close at hand, Detmers made the decision to drop the disguise. After ordering the disguise dropped, Kormoran’s guns were swung into position just seconds after Detmers’ command. The second salvo from the German ship hit home, while Sydney, clearly surprised at the turn of events, cut loose with a salvo that went high. Kormoran’s anti-aircraft guns raked the exposed surfaces of Sydney, preventing the cruiser’s crew from manning its smaller caliber weapons. Kormoran’s third salvo impacted the Sydney’s bridge and fire direction tower. These hits likely killed Captain Burnett along with much of the bridge crew and eliminated Sydney’s ability to fire accurately. Additional hits ignited the seaplane on the cruiser and started a large fire. Sydney also seemed to have lost the ability to fire with her forward guns, which did not respond. Eventually, the after turrets began firing and soon scored damaging hits on the raider. Sydney also fired a number of torpedoes, all of which missed. Sydney’s guns went silent after a time, and the cruiser slowly made its way away towards the south, on fire and down by the stern. Kormoran, its engines disabled and with a destructive fire of its own, began sinking. Sydney was last seen 10 miles away, still on fire- later during the night, the glow from the cruiser’s fire was still visible until midnight.[26] Meanwhile, Detmers ordered his ship abandoned- 20 crew had been killed in the fighting, and another 60 died when a lifeboat overturned- 315 personnel . Fires eventually reached Kormoran’s mine storage area and detonated their explosive contents, obliterating the back half of the ship. Sydney faired no better- she sank at some point that night, taking all 645 officers and men aboard with her.[27] Detmers and his remaining crew were eventually picked up by Allied ships- they would spend the remainder of the war as prisoners in Australia. Detmers was accused later of violating the rules of war by firing on Sydney while in neutral colors- however, it seems more likely that Detmers had dropped his disguise prior to opening fire, and that the captain of the Sydney was caught unawares by the raider; Burnett was likely simply used to stopping merchant vessels. He made the mistake of bringing his ship far too close to an unknown vessel without having determined its identity. In doing so, he allowed Detmers rapid-firing guns to quickly achieve serious damage on the cruiser.

 One of the Kormoran's 150mm guns as seen today on the ocean flow. Kormoran's wreck was discovered in 2008 at a depth of 8400 ft. Photo source: dailymail.uk.

One of the Kormoran's 150mm guns as seen today on the ocean flow. Kormoran's wreck was discovered in 2008 at a depth of 8400 ft. Photo source: dailymail.uk.

 Also discovered in 2008, the wreck of the HMAS Sydney lies about 13 miles southeast of the Kormoran's final resting place. Photo source: Business Insider.

Also discovered in 2008, the wreck of the HMAS Sydney lies about 13 miles southeast of the Kormoran's final resting place. Photo source: Business Insider.

                Another mutually destructive engagement took place between a raider and a target merchant ship. On the morning of September 27, 1942, the raider Stier emerged from a rain squall and began to fire upon an unknown ship, anticipating an easy victory. However, Stier quickly began to receive accurate counter-fire and received numerous hits, setting the raider afire. Stier’s crew claimed that she had encountered an Allied AMC, with an estimated armament of 1 x 5.9-inch stern-mounted gun, 6 x 4- or 5-inch guns, and numerous 20-40mm AA guns. However, in actuality, the Stier’s opponent was the 7,181-ton Liberty ship SS Stephen Hopkins, which was only lightly armed with 2 x 37mm, 4 x .50-caliber MGs, 2 x .30-caliber MGs, and 1 x 4-inch stern gun. Stier’s crew included several naval auxiliary personnel, who manned the rear gun and hit Stier with 15 4-inch shells, punching several holes below the raider’s waterline, setting the fuel bunker afire, hits to the crew quarters, hospital, and diesel generator, and disabling her steering, and damaging her hydraulics. Withering fire from the Stier took its toll on the Hopkins, which finally sank at 10 AM with the loss of three killed, five severely wounded, and 28 other wounded. Hopkins’ crew abandoned ship- one month later, 15 survivors from the valiant Liberty ship landed near the Brazilian villae of Barro de Stapanoana- the other 42 members of the crew had perished. The Stier meanwhile was scuttled, and her crew picked up by the resupply vessel Tannenfels.[28]

 The Stier was perhaps the least successful of the German raiders, only sinking three ships during 1942 before meeting an unexpected end at the hands of a Liberty ship in September 1942. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk.

The Stier was perhaps the least successful of the German raiders, only sinking three ships during 1942 before meeting an unexpected end at the hands of a Liberty ship in September 1942. Photo source: bismarck-class.dk.

                The sinking of the Stier, which had only sank a handful of ships to date, marked the decline of the raider as an effective means of waging war on Allied shipping. Convoys had become more effective at protecting against enemy ships, and warship patrols were ever-increasing, as evidenced by the number of raiders sunk by such ships. In November 1942, the raider Thor, which had successfully engaged in two cruises each nearly a year long and sank 22 ships for 150,000 tons, was destroyed in a fire while docked in Yokohama. Thor’s crew was forced to watch dismayed as the fire spread from a neighboring tanker to their cherished vessel. The last raider to sail was the Michel, which set out for its second cruise on May 1, 1943 and patrolled the Pacific. Michel’s second cruise was much less successful than its first- in five months of sailing, Michel sank just three ships for 27,000 tons before being sunk on October 17, 1943 by the submarine USS Tarpon.[29]

                Though the effectiveness of the raiders dropped off substantially after the first half of 1941, their accomplishments were not unsubstantial. For a very reasonable cost, the Kriegsmarine had modified 10 former-civilian ships which sank 890,000 tons of Allied shipping. This made the raiders more successful than their vastly more expensive warship brethren such as the Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, and second only to the U-boats, in which the Navy also invested far more funding. Perhaps more importantly, the impact these ten ships had on Allied naval practices far outweighed their cost. Raiders disrupted trade flow and broke up timetables, forced Allied navies to dedicate extra cruisers and destroyers to patrol sea lanes. The Allies also had to use additional aircraft for patrol duties. All of these ships and aircraft were assets that could have been used in combat theaters such as the Mediterranean or North Atlantic. Finally, occasional intelligence finds, most notably that of the Automedon, were highly useful to the Axis cause. Overall, the raiders performed admirably and achieved remarkable results.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sources

1.       Muggenthaler, August Karl. German Raiders of World War II. Pan Books, 1980.

2.       Langenberg, William H. “German Kriegsmarine: Applying Deception to Harass Allied Shipping.” Warfare History Network, Sovereign Media, 20 Aug. 2015. warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/german-kriegsmarine-applying-deception-to-harass-allied-shipping/

3.       Asmussen, John. “Hilfskreuzer Penguin.” www.bismarck-class.dk, John Asmussen, 2000, www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/pinguin.html. Accessed 2 NOV 2017

4.       Asmussen, John. “Hilfskreuzer.” www.bismarck-class.dk, John Asmussen, 2000, www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/hilfskreuzer_introduction.html. Accessed 2 NOV 2017

5.       Asmussen, John. “Hillfkreuzer Atlantis.” www.bismarck-class.dk, John Asmussen, 2000, www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfkreuzer/atlantis.html . Accessed 2 NOV 2017

6.       Hastings, Max. The Secret War: Spies, Ciphers, and Guerrillas 1939-1945. Harper, an Imprint of HarperCollinsPublishers, 2015.

7.       Robinson, Stephen. False Flags: Disguised German Raiders of World War II. Exisle Publishing, 2016.

8.       Woodward, David. The Secret Raiders; the Story of the German Armed Merchant Raiders in the Second World War. W.W. Norton, 1955.

9.       Asmussen, John. “Hilfskreuzer Widder.” www.bismarck-class.dk, John Asmussen, 2000, www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/widder.html . Accessed 2 NOV 2017

10.   Asmussen, John. “Hilfskreuzer Thor.” www.bismarck-class.dk,  John Asmussen, 2000, www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/thor.html  . Accessed 2 NOV 2017

11.   Asmussen, John. “Hilfskreuzer Komet.” www.bismarck-class.dk,  John Asmussen, 2000, www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/komet.html. Accessed 2 NOV 2017

12.   Asmussen, John. “Hilfskreuzer Michel.” www.bismarck-class.dk,  John Asmussen, 2000, www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/michel.html . Accessed 2 NOV 2017

13.   Detmers, Theodor. The Raider Kormoran. Tandem, 1975.

14.   Langenberg, William H. “German Merchant Raider Kormoran & HMAS Sydney's Deadly Duel.” Warfare History Network, Sovereign Media, 20 Aug. 2015, warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/german-merchant-raider-kormoran-hmas-sydneys-deady-duel/+.

15.   Guttman, Jon. “The Last Raider - July '97 World War II Feature.” HistoryNet, HistoryNet, 19 Aug. 1997, www.historynet.com/the-last-raider-july-97-world-war-ii-feature.htm.

 

[1] http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/german-kriegsmarine-applying-deception-to-harass-allied-shipping/ (11/2/16)

[2] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/pinguin.html (11/2/16)

[3] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/hilfskreuzer_introduction.html (11/2/16)

[4] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/pinguin.html

[5] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/hilfskreuzer_introduction.html (11/2/16)

[6] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/atlantis.html 27 JAN 2018

[7] The Secret War, Max Hastings- p.135-140

[8] False Flags: Disguised German Raiders of World War II, P.102

[9] http://www.warsailors.com/raidervictims/pinguin.html

[10] German Raiders of World War II, p. 45

[11] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/widder.html

[12] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/thor.html

[13] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer

[14] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer

[15] False Flags: German Raiders of World War II, p.54

[16] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/komet.html

[17] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/michel.html

[18] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/michel.html

[19] The Secret Raiders, p.140

[20] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/thor.html

[21] The Secret Raiders, p.145-146

[22] http://www.bismarck-class.dk/hilfskreuzer/thor.html

[23] The Secret Raiders, p. 151-152

[24] The Raider Kormoran, p. 178

[25] False Flags: , p.276-279

[26]http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/german-merchant-raider-kormoran-hmas-sydneys-deady-duel/

[27] http://warfarehistorynetwork.com/daily/wwii/german-merchant-raider-kormoran-hmas-sydneys-deady-duel/

[28] http://www.historynet.com/the-last-raider-july-97-world-war-ii-feature.htm

[29] German Raiders of World War II, p. 207